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Saturday, June 4, 2011

The English language was brought to England.  Here is a brief summary of how it happened:   When the Romans left England, leaving the native Celts defenseless,  four German tribes -- the Angles, the Jutes,  the Saxons, and the Frisians -- took this opportunity to invade England and established their kingdom.  The Celts, defeated by the overwhelming power of the four German tribes,  moved to Scotland, Ireland and France, leaving the main land to the Germans.
They called it Engla-land or "the land of the Angles" -- named after the most formidable of the four tribes, the Angles.  After several hundred years of rule, France invaded England and established its rule for 400 years.  Just like the Romans who introduced Latin in England, the French introduced 1000s of their words in English. The English began to add several thousand words to their language.   After the French relinquished their stronghold on England, the rulers of England grouped together and began to colonize countries outside of England.  Several countries in Africa, Asia,  and in the Americas were colonized.   As they began to spread, the English language was introduced in those countries and, many words from other languages were incorporated.   Gradually, the English language became dominant and official in many colonized countries.
So, the English language we speak is deeply rooted in German.  It still keeps growing, borrowing and expanding.  Right now, it is the most dominant, highly diverse, and widely spoken language in the world.   Now, let us see the way in which the English language grows.

                                    BORROWED WORDS:

One way to add words is to borrow words from other languages.

Examples: The word "Boss" entered the English language as a borrowed word from Dutch language.
More examples below:

                        Lesson                         =          French
                        Pizza                            =          Italian
                        Tank                            =          Gujarati
                        Democracy                   =          Greek
                        Mango                          =          Tamil
                        Rogue                          =          Sinhalese (Sri Lanka)
                        Guitar                           =          Spanish
                        Tsunami                        =          Japanese
                        Calendar, Data              =          Latin
                        Vodka  `                       =          Russian
                        Pistol                            =          Czechoslovakia
                        Paper, Ivory                  =          Egyptian
                        Cannibal                       =          Caribbean

                                              CLIPPED WORDS:

Many of the words in the English language are shortened forms of longer words.


                      LONG FORM                                       CLIPPED FORM
                        Pantaloons                                =                      Pants
                        Cabriolet                                   =                      Cab
                        Gasoline                                   =                      Gas
                        Public House                            =                      Pub
                        Professional                              =                      Pro
                        Popular (Music)                         =                      Pop
                        Fabulous                                  =                      Fab
                        Abdominal Muscles                  =                      Abs
                        Luncheon                                 =                      Lunch
                        Typographical error                    =                      Typos
                      Varsity                                       =                   University
                        Fanatic                                     =                      Fan
                        Gymnasium                              =                      Gym

                                BLEND WORDS:

Another way of adding words to our English language is to take two words and crunch it.  The new word that is formed if called "Blend Word".  Notice below that some letters are dropped in the process.

            sweep             +          wipe                             = swipe

            slovenly           +          language                      = slang

            by                   +          cause                          = because

            picture            +          element                        = pixel

            breakfast        +          lunch                            = brunch

            motor              +          hotel                            = motel

            odor                +          nil                                = Odonil

            bang               +          smash                         = mash

            haggle            +          tussle                          = hassle

            flame              +          glare                           = flare

            parachute       +          troop                           = paratroop(s)

            modulator       +          demodulator                = modem


A few words are made by combining the first letters of words in a pharse.  These shortened words formed from the initial letters are called acronyms.  There are 100s are acronyms in the English language.  You can make your own acronyms.

            AKA                                       =          Also Known As

            CNN                                       =          Cable News Network

            VIN                                        =    Vehicle Identification Number

            DVD                                      =          Digital Video Disk

            FAQ                                      =       Frequently Asked Question

            COP                                      =          Constable On Patrol

            AWOL                                    =          Absent Without Leave

            DUI                                        =      Driving Under Influence 
                                                                (after consuming alcohol)

            OJT                                        =          On Job Training

            DOA                                       =          Dead On Arrival

            AAMOF                                  =          As A Matter Of Fact

            ASL                                        = Age Sex Location (chatroom)

            ASAP                                     =          As Soon As Possible

            AWA                                       =          As Well As

            TT                                           =  Transaction Time (call center)

            RFI                                         =          Request For Information

            MAN                                       =       Metropolitan Area Network

            FEL                                        =          Foreign Exchange Line

            HCA                                        =          Health Care Assistant

            CTS                                        =Computerized TomographyScan

                          COMPOUND WORDS:

A compound word is made by putting two words together without changing the spellings.

     COMPOUND WORD                                               NEW WORD

Bar                  +          Tender                                    =          bartender

Eye                 +          Lid                                          =          eyelid

Air                   +          Liner                                       =          airliner

Sun                 +          Set                                          =          sunset

Week              +          End                                         =          weekend

Table              +          Cloth                                        =         tablecloth

Lap                 +          Top                                          =          laptop

Lip                   +          Stick                                       =          lipstick

Grave              +          Yard                                        =       graveyard

Door               +          Mat                                          =         doormat

Day                 +          Dream                                     =        daydream

After                +          Birth                                        =          afterbirth

In                     +          Hale                                       =          inhale

Life                  +          Guard                                     =          lifeguard

Sand               +          Paper                                     =       sandpaper


Many times, the name of a famous person or place becomes a word. 

NAME/PLACE                                      NEW WORD

Captain Charles Boycott                           Boycott

Americo Vespucci                                    America

River "Adobe Creek"                                 Adobe

The company financier's
daughter name                                          Mercedes

Louis Braille                                     `        Braille

Earl of Sandwich                                       Sandwich

Rudolf Diesel                                            Diesel

Joseph Guillotin                                        Guillotin

Mary, Queen of England                           Bloody Mary

John Duns Scotus                                    Dunce

Charles Lynch                                           Lynch

Archibald Spooner                                    Spoonerism

George Washington                                 Washington

Muhammed Bin Saud                              Saudi Arabia

Gabriel Fahrenheit                                    Fahrenheit

James Watt                                               Watt

 More on "how the English language grows will continue........."

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